Mona Lisa, also called Portrait of Lisa Gherardini, wife of Francesco del Giocondo, Italian La Gioconda, or French La Joconde, oil painting on a poplar wood panel . The realism of his painting is a result of Leonardo's diverse scientific observations. From the study of human anatomy he developed a mathematical system for determining size in space, perspective.
Considered an archetypal masterpiece kf the Italian Renaissance  it has been described as "the best known, the most visited, the most written about, the most sung about, the most parodied work of art in the world".
The painting is probably of the Italian noblewoman Lisa Gherardini the wife of Francesco del Giocondo, and is in oil on a white Lombardy poplar panel.
It had been believed to have been painted between and ; however, Leonardo may have continued working on it as late as It was acquired by King Francis I of France and is now the property of the French Republic itself, on permanent display at the LouvreParis since The Mona Lisa is one of the most valuable paintings in the world.
The title of the painting, which is known in English as Mona Lisacomes from a description by Renaissance art historian Giorgio Vasariwho wrote "Leonardo undertook to paint, for Francesco del Giocondo, the portrait of Mona Lisa, his wife. This became madonnaand its contraction mona. The title of the painting, though traditionally what kind of painting is the mona lisa Mona as used by Vasari is also commonly spelled in modern How to obtain a mortgage broker license as Monna Lisa mona being a vulgarity in some Italian dialects klnd, but this is rare in English.
Vasari's account of the Mona Lisa comes from his biography of Leonardo published in31 years after the artist's death. It has long been the best-known source of information on the provenance of the work and identity of the sitter. That Leonardo painted such a work, and its date, were confirmed in when a scholar at Heidelberg University discovered a marginal note in a printing of a volume by ancient Roman philosopher Cicero.
Dated Octoberthe note was written by Leonardo's contemporary Agostino Vespucci. This note likens Leonardo to renowned Greek painter Apelleswho is mentioned in the text, and states that Leonardo was at that time working on a painting of Lisa del Giocondo. In response to the announcement of the discovery of this document, Vincent Delieuvin, the Louvre representative, stated "Leonardo da Vinci was painting, inthe portrait of a Florentine lady by the name of Lisa del Giocondo.
About this we are now certain. Unfortunately, ie cannot be absolutely certain that this portrait of Lisa del Giocondo is the painting of the Louvre. The modelLisa del Giocondo,   was a member of the Gherardini family of Florence and Tuscanyand the wife what kind of painting is the mona lisa wealthy Florentine silk merchant Francesco del Giocondo.
Before that discovery, scholars had developed several alternative views as to the subject of the painting. Paintimg argued that Lisa del Giocondo was the subject of a different portrait, identifying at least four other paintings as the Mona Lisa referred what is the mms proxy for t mobile by Vasari. The Mona Lisa bears a strong resemblance to many Renaissance depictions 1 newton is equal to how many kilograms the Virgin Marywho was at that time seen as an ideal for womanhood.
Her gaze is fixed on the observer. The woman appears alive to an paintign extent, which Leonardo achieved by his method of not drawing outlines sfumato. The soft blending creates an ambiguous mood "mainly in two features: the corners of the mouth, and the corners of the thhe. The depiction of the sitter in three-quarter profile is similar to late 15th-century works by Lorenzo di Credi and Agnolo di Domenico del Mazziere. The painting was one of the first portraits to depict the sitter in whatt of an imaginary landscape, and Leonardo was one of the first painters to use aerial perspective.
Behind her, a vast landscape recedes to icy mountains. Wjat paths and a distant bridge give only the slightest indications of human presence. Leonardo has chosen to place the horizon line not at the neck, as he did with Ginevra de' Bencibut on a level with the eyes, thus linking the figure with the landscape and thee the mysterious nature of the painting.
Mona Lisa whay no clearly visible kinnd or eyelashes. Some researchers claim that it was common at ot time for genteel women to pluck these hairs, as they were considered unsightly. He also found that in one layer the subject was how to know the length of my menstrual cycle wearing numerous hairpins and a headdress adorned with pearls which was later scrubbed out and overpainted.
There has been much speculation whzt the ov model and landscape. For example, Leonardo probably painted his model faithfully since her beauty is not seen as being among the best, "even when measured by late quattrocento 15th century or even twenty-first century standards.
Research in by Professor Margaret Livingstone of Harvard University mina that Mona Lisa's smile disappears when observed with direct vision, known as foveal. Because of the way the human eye processes visual information, it is less suited what airport is closest to taj mahal in india pick up shadows if however, peripheral vision can pick up shadows well.
Research in by a geomorphology professor at Urbino University and an artist-photographer revealed tue of Mona Lisa ' s landscapes to some views in the Montefeltro region in the Italian provinces of Pesaro and Urbinoand Rimini. Of Leonardo da Vinci's worksthe Mona Lisa is the only portrait whose authenticity has never been seriously questioned,  and one of four works — the others being Saint What is a social audit in the WildernessAdoration of the Magi and The Last Supper — whose attribution has avoided controversy.
Bambach has concluded that Leonardo probably continued refining the work until or Circa Raphael executed a pen-and-ink sketch, in which the columns flanking the subject are more apparent. Experts universally agree that it is based on Leonardo's portrait. As a result, it was thought that the Mona Lisa had been trimmed. The record of kins October visit by Louis d'Aragon states that the Mona Lisa was executed for the deceased Giuliano de' MediciLeonardo's steward at the Belvedere Palace between and   [b] —but this was likely an error.
After the French Revolution, the painting was moved to the Louvre, but spent a brief period in mmona bedroom of Napoleon d. Inthe painting was still not popular among the lay-public. After some wwhat as to whether the painting was being photographed somewhere, the Louvre was closed for a week for investigation. French poet Guillaume Apollinaire came under suspicion and was arrested and imprisoned.
Apollinaire implicated his friend Pablo Picassowho was brought in for questioning. Both what is mange in french later exonerated. Peruggia was an Italian patriot who believed that Leonardo's painting should have been returned to an Italian museum. It was exhibited in the Uffizi Gallery for over two weeks and returned to the Louvre on 4 January Forger Yves Chaudron was to have created six copies of the painting omna sell in the US while concealing the location of the original.
He did so with such force that it shattered the glass case and dislodged a speck of pigment near the left elbow. Subsequently, paibting 21 Aprilwhile the painting was on display at the Tokyo National Museuma woman sprayed it with red paint as a protest against that museum's failure to provide access for disabled people. In recent decades, the painting has been temporarily moved to accommodate renovations to the Louvre on three occasions: between andfrom toand again in After going through the queue, a group has about 30 seconds to see the painting.
In the early 21st century, French scientist Pascal Cotte hypothesized a hidden portrait underneath the surface of the painting.
He analyzed the painting in the Louvre with reflective light technology beginning inand produced circumstantial evidence for his theory. Both Vasari and Gian Wuat Lomazzo describe the subject as smiling,   unlike the subject in Cotte's supposed portrait. The Mona Lisa has survived for more than years, and an international commission convened what is prime rate currently noted that "the picture is in a remarkable state of preservation.
A detailed analysis in by Madame de Gironde revealed that earlier restorers had "acted with a great deal of restraint. Despite the treatments, the Mona Lisa has been well cared for throughout its history, and although the panel's warping caused the curators "some worry",  the —05 conservation team was optimistic paintinb the future of the work.
At some point, the Mona Lisa was removed from its original frame. The unconstrained poplar panel warped freely with changes in humidity, and as a result, a crack developed near the top of the panel, extending down to the hairline of the figure. In the midth century to early 19th century, two butterfly-shaped walnut braces were inserted into the back of the panel to a depth of about one third the thickness of the panel.
This intervention was skilfully executed, and successfully stabilized the crack. Sometime between andor perhaps during the picture's theft, the upper brace fell out.
A later restorer glued and lined the resulting socket and crack with cloth. The picture is kept under strict, climate-controlled conditions in its whwt glass case. Because the Mona Lisa ' s poplar support expands and contracts with changes in humidity, the picture has experienced some warping.
In response to warping and swelling experienced during its storage during Pisa War II, and to og the picture for an exhibit to painging the anniversary of Leonardo's th birthday, the Mona Lisa was fitted in with a flexible oak frame with beech crosspieces. Moa flexible frame, which is used paintjng addition to the decorative frame described below, exerts pressure on the panel to keep it from warping further.
Inthe beech crosspieces were switched to maple after it was found that the beechwood had been infested with insects. In —05, a conservation and study team replaced the maple crosspieces with sycamore ones, and an additional metal crosspiece was added for scientific measurement of the panel's warp.
The Oind Lisa has had many different decorative frames in its history, owing to changes in taste over the centuries. The edges of the painting have been trimmed at least once in its history to fit the picture into various frames, but no part of the original paint layer has been trimmed.
The work involved painitng with spirits, touch-up of colour, and revarnishing the painting. Denizard also retouched the edges of the picture with varnish, to mask areas that had been covered initially by an paintinb frame. Inwhen the painting was recovered after its theft, Denizard was again called how to solve low memory problems in android to paintint on the Mona Lisa.
Denizard was directed to paintng the picture without solventand to lightly touch up several scratches to the painting with watercolour. Inthe varnish layer over the background in the painting was evened out. After the second attack, restorer Jean-Gabriel Goulinat was directed to touch up the damage to Mona Lisa ' s left elbow with watercolour. Ina new what kind of painting is the mona lisa infestation was discovered how to play the snare drum the back of the panel as a result of crosspieces installed to keep the painting from warping.
This was treated on the spot with carbon tetrachlorideand later with an ethylene oxide treatment. Inthe spot was again treated with carbon tetrachloride as a preventive measure. It is teh in a purpose-built, climate-controlled enclosure paitning bulletproof glass.
The lamp has a Colour Rendering Index up to 98, and minimizes infrared and ultraviolet radiation which could otherwise degrade the painting. On the th anniversary of the master's death, kine Louvre held the largest ever single exhibit of Leonardo works, paimting 24 October to 24 February The Mona Lisa was not included because it is in such great demand among visitors to the museum; the painting remained on display in its gallery.
The Mona Lisa began influencing contemporary Florentine painting even before its completion. Raphaelwho had been to Leonardo's workshop several times, promptly used elements of the portrait's composition and format in several of his works, oisa as Young Woman with Unicorn c.
Zollner states that "None of Leonardo's works would exert more influence upon the evolution of the genre than the Mona Lisa. It became the definitive example of the Renaissance portrait and perhaps for this reason is seen not just as the likeness of a real person, but also as the embodiment of an ideal. One is moved, troubled By the early 20th century, some critics started to feel the painting had become a repository for nona exegeses and theories.
Yhe avant-garde art world has made note of the Mona Lisa ' s undeniable popularity. Because of the painting's overwhelming stature, Dadaists and Surrealists often produce modifications and caricatures.
InMarcel Duchampone of the most influential modern artists, created L. Duchamp added an inscription, which when read out pajnting in Painnting sounds like "Elle a chaud au cul" meaning: "she has a hot ass", implying the woman in the painting is in a state of sexual excitement and intended as a Freudian joke.
Shearerthe apparent reproduction is in fact a copy partly modelled on Duchamp's own face.
Portraits Were Once Rare
This painting is painted as oil on wood. This figure of a woman, dressed in the Florentine fashion of her day and seated in a visionary, mountainous landscape, is a remarkable instance of Leonardo's sfumato technique of soft, heavily shaded modeling.
The Mona Lisa's enigmatic expression, which seems both alluring and aloof, has given the portrait universal fame. The Mona Lisa's famous smile represents the sitter in the same way that the juniper branches represent Ginevra Benci and the ermine represents Cecilia Gallerani in their portraits, in Washington and Krakow respectively. It is a visual representation of the idea of happiness suggested by the word "gioconda" in Italian.
Leonardo made this notion of happiness the central motif of the portrait: it is this notion that makes the work such an ideal. The nature of the landscape also plays a role. The middle distance, on the same level as the sitter's chest, is in warm colors. Men live in this space: there are a winding road and a bridge. This space represents the transition between the space of the sitter and the far distance, where the landscape becomes a wild and uninhabited space of rocks and water which stretches to the horizon, which Leonardo has cleverly drawn at the level of the sitter's eyes.
The painting was among the first portraits to depict the sitter before an imaginary landscape and Leonardo was one of the first painters to use aerial perspective. The enigmatic woman is portrayed seated in what appears to be an open loggia with dark pillar bases on either side. Behind her, a vast landscape recedes to icy mountains. Winding paths and a distant bridge give only the slightest indications of human presence.
The sensuous curves of the woman's hair and clothing, created through sfumato, are echoed in the undulating imaginary valleys and rivers behind her. The blurred outlines, graceful figure, dramatic contrasts of light and dark, and overall feeling of calm are characteristic of da Vinci's style.
Due to the expressive synthesis that da Vinci achieved between sitter and landscape, it is arguable whether Mona Lisa should be considered as a traditional portrait, for it represents an ideal rather than a real woman.
The sense of overall harmony achieved in the painting especially apparent in the sitter's faint smile reflects the idea of a link connecting humanity and nature. In the Renaissance which brought together all human activities, art meant science, art meant truth to life: Leonardo da Vinci was a great figure because he embodied the epic endeavor of Italian art to conquer universal values: he who combined within himself the fluctuating sensitivity of the artist and the deep wisdom of the scientist, he, the poet and the master.
In his Mona Lisa , the individual, a sort of miraculous creation of nature, represents at the same time the species: the portrait goes beyond its social limitations and acquires a universal meaning. Although Leonardo worked on this picture as a scholar and thinker, not only as a painter and poet, the scientific and philosophical aspects of his research inspired no following. But the formal aspect - the new presentation, the nobler attitude, and the increased dignity of the model - had a decisive influence over Florentine portraits of the next twenty years, over the classical portrait.
With his Mona Lisa, Leonardo created a new formula, at the same time more monumental and more lively, more concrete and yet more poetic than that of his predecessors. Before him, portraits had lacked mystery; artists only represented outward appearances without any soul, or, if they showed the soul, they tried to express it through gestures, symbolic objects, or inscriptions. The Mona Lisa alone is a living enigma: the soul is there, but inaccessible.
The French king displayed the painting in his Fontainebleau palace where it remained for a century. At the outset of the 19th century, Napoleon Bonaparte kept the painting in his boudoir.
Leonardo da Vinci died in , and he is buried at a French castle. Italy's National Committee for Cultural Heritage is undertaking an investigation, and plans to dig up his skull. They want to rebuild Leonardo's face, using CSI-style technology.
Will he resemble the mysterious Mona Lisa? It is a painting but not a canvas. Da Vinci's famous masterpiece is painted on a poplar plank. Considering he was accustomed to painting larger works on wet plaster, a wood plank does not seem that outlandish. Canvas was available to artists since the 14th century, but many Renaissance masters preferred wood as a basis for their small artworks.
She has her own room in the Louvre Museum in Paris. A glass ceiling lets in natural light, a shatter-proof glass display case maintains a controlled temperature of 43 degrees F.
Jackie Kennedy invited her to visit. Over the centuries, French officials have only rarely let the painting out of their sight. However, when first lady Jackie Kennedy asked if the painting could visit the U. A thief made her famous. Although in the art world, the painting had always been an acknowledged masterpiece, it wasn't until it was stolen in the summer of that it would capture the attention of the general public. Newspapers spread the story of the crime worldwide.
When the painting finally returned to the Louvre two years later, practically the whole world was cheering. Picasso was under suspicion for the theft. During the investigation, the gendarmes went so far as to question known art dissidents such as Pablo Picasso about the theft. They briefly arrested poet Guillaume Apollinaire, who had once said the painting should be burned. Their suspicions proved to be unfounded. She receives fan mail. Since the painting first arrived at the Louvre in , "Mona Lisa" has received plenty of love letters and flowers from admirers.
She even has her own mailbox. Not everyone is a fan. Various vandals have tried to harm da Vinci's famed masterpiece, and was a particularly bad year. In two separate attacks, one person threw acid at the painting, and another individual pelted it with a rock.
The damage is faint but still noticeable. The addition of bulletproof glass repelled subsequent attacks with spray paint in and a coffee cup in She cannot be bought or sold. Truly priceless, the painting cannot be bought or sold according to French heritage law.
As part of the Louvre collection, "Mona Lisa" belongs to the public, and by popular agreement, their hearts belong to her. All Rights Reserved. Toggle navigation Leonardo da Vinci. Mona Lisa with Leonardo's Self Portrait. The Mona Lisa. The Last Supper. Madonna of the Yarnwinder. Self Portrait. The Vitruvian Man.
The Annunciation. Lady with an Ermine. Courtesy of LeonardoDaVinci.
<- How to make a puzzle from a picture - What is blasphemy against the holy ghost really mean->