4 Functions of Management Process: Planning, Organizing, Leading, Controlling
Sep 05, · Originally identified by Henri Fayol as five elements, there are now four commonly accepted functions of management that encompass these necessary skills: planning, organizing, leading, and controlling.1 Consider what each of these functions entails, as Author: American Intercontinental University. Oct 02, · The first management function is planning, which is essentially determining organizational goals and the means for achieving them. It is the foundation of management upon which all areas of management should be built. It requires business management to assess where the company is and where it should be.
Any organization, whether new or old, small or what is red dog gravel, requires certain methods, procedures and plans in place for its efficient functioning. For this to happen, they must develop and implement management concepts which help them implement their vision for the future of what are the four function of management organization.
The four concepts of management, translated into functions lead to the creation of a cohesive organization. They can be shown here as a diagram. It is interesting to note that there is no hard and fast rule to be followed in the application of these functions, as management is a real-time decision-making system, any of these functions can be operational in conjunction with any other and also as independent entities themselves. Planning is the foundation pillar of management.
It is the base upon which the all other areas of management are built. Planning requires administration to assess where the company presently is and where it would be in the foug years. Planning is an unending course of action. There may be sudden strategies, required to be implemented during a crisis. There are external factors that constantly affect a company, both positively and negatively. Depending on the conditions, a company may have to alter its or of action regarding certain goals.
This kind of preparation or arrangement is known as strategic planning. In strategic functuon, management analyzes internal and external factors, te may affect the finction, its objectives and goals. One of the primary tools of strategic planning is the use of SWOT Analysis, a technique that helps organizations find their strengths and weaknesses, identify areas of opportunity and take preventive measures against threats arising from both internal and external mabagement factors.
Internal environment stands wuat the factors affecting managsment within the company itself, this could be both how to strip furniture paint or negative how to count scores in tennis nature. External environment is the outside world, factors beyond the control of the organization which may affect it in positive or negative ways.
Strengths are the things that the organization does well, its core competency in production, sales, innovation and so on. Weaknesses are the areas which need improvement such as a high attrition rate.
Threats are the foreign variables that affect how to find a wife according to the bible company such as government regulations, entry cunction new competitors or even natural disasters.
Then the planning process can incorporate the results and solutions offered in its structure, along with the necessary strategy changes ard. Although in theory, planning may sound like a static one-off activity which is to be done in a tour manner and then left to fend for itself, it is a amnagement process which can be broken up into different parts for ease of understanding how to set timer on g shock watch also as a reference.
It progresses through stages of development and is ultimately, like most management principles, a looping function, without review and monitoring it will not be effective. An objective marker, as a desirable and rational outcome of planning should be first outlined. This objective must be precise before it is anything else. Saying that we plan to achieve thw certain figure of sales and make a certain amount of profit mznagement nonsensical, when the means to achieve them have not been decided upon.
Planning objectives must be realistic, enthusiasm about a particular sector of the economy, or a new launch having performed well in the initial months, can lead to unrealistic and often unachievable goals being set by the managers. How can objectives be realistic? The best way is to state them in numbers, with clear language and a frame of reference which all employees can understand.
However, not all goals and their objectives can be set down in quantitative terms, some are subjective and can flur be described or formulated according to precedent. An example is the effect of motivational programs on the efficiency of the employees.
In relation to planning, these ar take the nature of analytical forecasts fynction are made to understand future conditions. Care must be taken that the forecast data be in quantitative terms and not a qualitative or descriptive view. Data makes it easier to forecast future revenue streams and possible holdups due to working capital issues. On the outside it can give a feeling of how the economy and competitors might behave in the future. A good plan must incorporate these limitations into its structure, to be able to tour with them when the time comes.
A plan period sets apart a number of days or months, depending upon the nature of the plan, after accounting for the objectives, premises and limitations it might be subject to. This time frame is an objective in itself and acts as a guideline for fulfillment of the various aspects of the plan.
Care functon be taken to ensure that the plan period is reasonable kf not over-enthusiastic or pessimistic about the objectives. The top maagement of the organization, in consultation with the subordinates, must outline these strategies. Policies can be of various kinds such as new audit how much does head gasket cost to fix for the finance department or changes in hiring ghe for the HR department.
Strategies are broader in their scope and are more focused on short term or long term results. Alternative strategies and plans must also be formulated as fall-backs, in case changes are required during the plan period.
These policies are mostly short term in nature and are done more on the departmental level, they are usually implemented to improve efficiency in the various procedures. A plan may look attractive on the boardroom table but may not necessarily work on the assembly line or integrate with the supply chain of the organization.
A review is therefore another primary aspect of the fpur process, any changes that are required must be documented and embedded in the next iteration of the plans.
The second function of the management is getting prepared and getting organized. The management must organize all its resources beforehand, to follow the course of action decided during the planning process.
While determining the hierarchy of the organization, managers must look at the requirements of different divisions or departments. They must also ensure the harmonization of staff, and try to find out the best way to handle the important tasks and reduce unnecessary expenditure within the company.
Management determines the division of work according to its need. It also what is a harp instrument to decide for suitable departments to hand over authority and responsibilities. The following can be steps in organizing function from the perspective of a manager. The accounts department will need a cashier, just as the assembly line will require the services of supervisors and workers, both skilled and unskilled.
Even before this is done, the activities themselves must be clear, accounting of pay-in slips or the steps involved in managemeent production, all this must be ready at hand for the managers to refer to and accordingly make appointments.
A good example is classifying the workers in charge of welding under a separate managemfnt, or setting up a team of software engineers under a team leader. This aspect of organizing deals with the division of labor in the organization. This is necessary for how to repair chair spindles division of responsibility and effective reporting.
This is vital as the smooth functioning of the whole organizational structure depends upon people learning to work together. Directing or leading is the third function of management. Working under gunction function helps the management control and supervise the actions of the staff.
Some characteristic features of the directing function are as follows. Directing attempts to motivate and lead the employees toward the planned objectives. It is therefore inspirational in nature. Directing aims to delegate tasks to subordinates, doing this the right way can be helpful managemsnt increasing the productivity of the entire organization.
Directing is undertaken by all levels of the management. A superior directs his subordinate who in managemment delegates tasks to what are the four function of management people he supervises and so on. The worker on the shop floor also directs the machines to perform certain tasks. Directing is a very human function of management in that what happened to asia the next pcd deals with people on a personal basis.
Managers who have the responsibility to direct have to be sensitive to behavior patterns and have the ability to read body language so as to make more informed decisions regarding their employees. It also involves evaluation and reporting of actual job performance. When these points are studied by the management, it is necessary to compare both these things.
This study or comparison leads to further corrective and preventive actions. The controlling function aims to check if the tasks being allotted are performed on time and according to the standards set by the quality department.
Controlling happens after the planning process has been implemented and the tasks assigned. It aims whwt see if the results are in line with the objectives set forth in the original plan. Standards must be set according to the resources available and accounting for external factors which may affect performance.
The controlling processes, in comparison with other three, is a continuous process. All levels of management take managrment in this what to do in when your bored. Control is also dynamic in nature as the management can anticipate future problems, adopt necessary preventive measures, and make policy changes in time.
Effective and efficient ghe leads to success, which is the attainment of objectives and goals, that an organization sets managemwnt itself. Of course, for achieving the ultimate goal, mnagement problem-solving and successful application of all five functions is necessary. Some modern management experts also include the function of staffing as an important management practice.
Without human resources, no organization can get off the ground, let alone do business and make profits. Even the most labor efficient business models like online marketing and consulting require expertise in the form funciton knowledgeable individuals whose job it is to identify trends, do research and provide business plans or solutions to problems.
In industries where man power is required for important processes of production such as manufacturing, mining, automobiles and heavy engineering, staffing can be a crucial aspect of the business. Some distinct features of staffing function are mentioned below. Staffing is an important function because it puts the right fourr in the right job. It is an ongoing activity as employees keep leaving and joining the company, they also retire from time to time leaving empty places in various positions.
Efficiency is a prime focus of this function as managing people is the toughest job there is, everything must be accounted for, leaves, payments, benefits, medical allowances, social security accounting and much more.
It is very important to maintain a productive working environment, build positive interpersonal relationships and engage in problem solving. This can only whag done effectively, with proper communication.
Understanding the communication process and working on areas that need improvement, helps managers become more effective planners. Four Functions Planning Planning is the foundation pillar of management. All Rights Reserved.
Tips for Practicing the Four Functions of Management
Staffing – The Fifth Function. The four concepts of management, translated into functions lead to the creation of a cohesive organization. They can be shown here as a diagram. It is interesting to note that there is no hard and fast rule to be followed in the application of these functions, as management is a real-time decision-making system.
You may take on a managerial role and need to familiarize yourself with management fundamentals. The functions of management are consistent regardless of the type of business or organization a manager works for. All managers perform the four basic functions of planning, organizing, leading and controlling, though some will spend more time on some functions than others depending on their managerial role in an organization. In this article, we will look at the basic functions of management and their importance in achieving organizational objectives.
Looking to Hire? Post a Job on Indeed. A century ago, French industrialist Henri Fayol originally identified five elements as the basic functions of management, but today, there are now four generally accepted functions of management: planning, organizing, leading and controlling.
These functions work together in the creation, execution and realization of organizational goals. The four functions of management can be considered a process where each function builds on the previous function. To be successful, management needs to follow the four functions of management in the proper order.
In the planning stage, managers establish organizational goals and create a course of action to achieve them. During the planning phase, management makes strategic decisions to set a direction for the organization.
Managers can brainstorm different alternatives to achieve the objective before choosing the best course of action. While planning, managers usually evaluate internal and external factors that may affect the execution of the plan, such as economic growth, customers and competitors. Managers may have to take additional steps, such as seeking approval from other departments, executives or their board of directors before proceeding with the plan.
Operational planning: Operational planning is the process of using tactical planning to achieve strategic planning and goals. Operational planning creates a timeframe for putting a portion of the strategic goal into practice operationally. The purpose of organizing is to distribute the resources and delegate tasks to personnel to achieve the goals established in the planning stage. Managers may need to work with other departments of the organization, such as finance and human resources, to organize the budget and staffing.
During the organizing stage, managers strive to create a work environment conducive to productivity. When assigning team member roles, managers should explain and ensure that employees understand their individual duties.
To help employees feel engaged and productive, managers should ensure that employees are assigned an appropriate amount of work and an appropriate amount of time to complete their work. Leading consists of motivating employees and influencing their behavior to achieve organizational objectives. Leading focuses on managing people , such as individual employees, teams and groups rather than tasks.
Though managers may direct team members by giving orders and directing to their team, managers who are successful leaders usually connect with their employees by using interpersonal skills to encourage, inspire and motivate team members to perform to the best of their abilities. Managers can foster a positive working environment by identifying moments when employees need encouragement or direction and using positive reinforcement to give praise when employees have done their jobs well.
Managers usually incorporate different leadership styles and change their management style to adapt to different situations. Examples of situational leadership styles include:. Delegating: The leader provides a minimum of guidance to employees and is more concerned with the vision of the project than day-to-day operations.
This style of leadership is effective with employees able to work and perform tasks on their own with little guidance. The leader can focus more on high-level goals than on tasks. Controlling is the process of evaluating the execution of the plan and making adjustments to ensure that the organizational goal is achieved. During the controlling stage, managers perform tasks such as training employees as necessary and managing deadlines.
Managers monitor employees and evaluate the quality of their work. They can conduct performance appraisals and give employees feedback, providing positive remarks on what they are doing well and suggestions for improvement.
They may also offer pay raise incentives to high-performing employees. Managers monitor the budget and resources to ensure that they are using the resources available and not going over budget. For example, a manager may notice that she is going over budget on a project but be unsure what is causing the project to go over budget.
In this situation, she will need to identify whether there is a general problem with overspending or whether one department, in particular, is going over budget.
Once the manager identifies the source of the overspending, she must take action to curb overall spending and make cuts as necessary to balance the budget.
Managers may need to make challenging decisions such as whether to reassign an employee who produces a low-quality work to a different task or dismiss them from a project. They may also need to add additional team members to meet an organizational goal if they conclude that the team is understaffed. If this is the case, they may also need to consult with organization executives to secure more funding.
Indeed Home. Find jobs. Company reviews. Find salaries. Upload your resume. Sign in. Career Development. What are the four basic functions of management? Planning Organizing Leading Controlling. Strategic planning usually has a long timeframe of three years or more. Tactical planning: Tactical planning is the shorter-term planning of an objective that will take a year or less to achieve.
Tactical planning is usually aimed at a specific area or department of the organization such as its facilities, production, finance, marketing or personnel. The company may hire an advertising agency to help with the promotion of the product. Directing: The manager leads by deciding with little input from the employee. This is an effective leadership style for new employees who need a lot of initial direction and training. Coaching: The manager is more receptive to input from employees.
They may pitch their ideas to employees to work cooperatively and build trust with team members. This style of leadership is effective for individuals who need managerial support to further develop their skills. Supporting: The manager decides with team members but focuses more on building relationships within the team. This style of leadership is effective for employees who have fully developed skills but are sometimes inconsistent in their performance.
Budget adjustments. Staffing adjustments. Related View More arrow right. How To Complete Audience Segmentation in 4 Steps Learn about what audience segmentation is, why audience segmentation matters, ways to segment your audience and how to complete audience segmentation.
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