Washington and the Whiskey Rebellion
Sep 11, · Summarize the Federal Governments (i.e. President Washington’s) response to the Whiskey Rebellion: He offered the group of rebels a pardon if they would agree to abide by the law. President Washington called out 13, militiamen as a federal force and gave the mob until September 1 to cease with their actions. By , the Whiskey Rebellion threatened the stability of the nascent United States and forced President Washington to personally lead the United States militia westward to stop the rebels. By the United States suffered from significant debt incurred during the Revolutionary War.
InCongress, at the urging of Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamiltonpassed its first excise tax on domestic spirits in order to pay for the debts accumulated during the Revolutionary War.
Farmers in Western Pennsylvania who relied upon the distillation of spirits, most notably whiskey, felt this tax was an abuse of federal authority; bytheir displeasure had turned violent, with armed rebels setting fire to the regional tax collector's office.
President George Washington how to disconnect from internet now faced with a violent uprising that threatened the United States, barely five years old. Wanting to solve the crisis peacefully, Washington issued this proclamation, asserting the power of the federal government and demanding the rebels put down their arms and return to their homes.
How to arm knit an infinity scarf, according to the Militia Act ofWashington would be compelled whizkey use the militia to put down the uprising.
Whereas, combinations to defeat the execution of the laws laying duties upon spirits distilled within the United States and upon stills have from the time of the commencement of those laws existed in some of the western parts of Pennsylvania. And whereas, by a law of dix United States entitled "An act to provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the Union, suppress insurrections, and repel invasions," it is enacted that whenever the laws of the United States shall be opposed or the execution thereof obstructed in any state by whikey too powerful to be suppressed by the how to make a cowboy hat helmet course of judicial proceedings or by the powers vested in the marshals by that act, the same being notified by an associate justice or the district judge, it shall be lawful for the President of the United States to call forth the militia of such state to suppress such combinations and to cause the laws to be duly executed.
And if the militia of a state, when such combinations may happen, shall refuse or be insufficient to suppress the same, it shall be washijgton for the President, if the legislature of the United States shall not be in session, to call forth and employ such numbers of the militia of any other state or states most convenient thereto as may be necessary; whisoey the use of the militia so to be called forth may be continued, if necessary, until the expiration of thirty days after the commencement of the of the ensuing session; Provided always, that, whenever it may be necessary in the judgment of the President to use the military force hereby directed to be called forth, the President shall forthwith, and previous thereto, by proclamation, command such insurgents to disperse and retire peaceably how to train your drafon their respective abodes within a limited time.
And whereas, James What is a youth flute sheet music, an associate justice, on the 4th instant, by writing under his hand, did from evidence which had been laid before him notify to me that "in the counties of Washington and Allegany, in Pennsylvania, laws of the United States are opposed and the execution thereof obstructed by combinations too powerful to be suppressed by the ordinary course of judicial proceedings or by the powers vested in the marshal of that district".
And whereas, it is in my judgment necessary under the circumstances of the case to take measures for calling forth the militia in order to suppress the combinations aforesaid, and to cause the laws to be duly executed; and I have accordingly determined so to do, feeling the deepest regret for the occasion, but withal the most solemn conviction that the essential interests of the Union demand it, that the very existence of government and the fundamental principles of social order are materially involved in the issue, and that the patriotism and firmness of all good citizens are seriously called upon, as occasions may require, to aid in the effectual suppression of so fatal a spirit.
Therefore, and in pursuance of the proviso above recited, I. George Washington, President of the United States, do hereby command all persons, being insurgents, as aforesaid, and all others whom it dod concern, on or before the 1st day of September next to disperse and retire peaceably to their respective abodes.
And I do moreover warn all persons whomsoever against aiding, abetting, or comforting the perpetrators of the aforesaid treasonable acts; and do require all officers and other citizens, according to their respective duties and the laws of the land, to exert their utmost endeavors to prevent and suppress such whiwkey proceedings.
In testimony whereof I have caused the seal of the United States of America to be affixed to these presents, and signed the same with my hand. Done at the city of Philadelphia the seventh day of August, one thousand seven hundred and ninety-four, and of the independence of the United States of America the nineteenth.
Primary Source. George Washington's Proclamation cid the Whiskey Rebellion. Related Primary Sources. Civil War Primary Source. Rev War Primary Source. View All Related Resources. President George Washington.
Two were convicted of treason, but Washington later pardoned them. Washington’s strong response to the Whiskey Rebellion became, as future-President James Madison put it, “a lesson to every part of the Union against disobedience to the laws.”. George Washington's Proclamation on the Whiskey Rebellion. In , Congress, at the urging of Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton, passed its first excise tax on domestic spirits in order to pay for the debts accumulated during the Revolutionary War. Farmers in Western Pennsylvania who relied upon the distillation of spirits, most notably whiskey, felt this tax was an . Answer and Explanation: In response to the armed uprising, the Government responded with a strong show of military strength. President George Washington, previously commander of the Continental.
The Whiskey Rebellion was a uprising of farmers and distillers in western Pennsylvania in protest of a whiskey tax enacted by the federal government. Following years of aggression with tax collectors, the region finally exploded in a confrontation that resulted in President Washington sending in troops to quell what some feared could become a full-blown revolution.
The Whiskey Rebellion is considered one of the first major tests of the authority of the newly formed U. During the American Revolution , individual states incurred significant debt.
In Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton pushed for the federal government to take over that debt. He also suggested an excise tax on whiskey to prevent further financial difficulty. In Washington journeyed through Virginia and Pennsylvania to speak with citizens about their views. Local government officials met the idea of a whiskey tax with enthusiasm, and Washington took this assurance back to Congress, which passed the bill.
But protests against the new tax began immediately, arguing that the tax was unfair to small producers. Under the new law, large producers paid the tax annually at a rate of six cents per gallon, and the more they produced, the further the tax breaks. Small producers, however, were stuck with paying nine cents per gallon in taxes. Farmers took further issue because only cash would be accepted for tax payment.
The law was immediately a failure, since refusals to pay the taxes were as common as intimidation against officials hired to collect them. Excise officers sent to collect the tax were met with defiance and threats of violence. Some producers refused to pay the tax.
Perhaps inevitably, violence broke out. On September 11, , excise officer Robert Johnson was riding through his collection route in western Pennsylvania when he was surrounded by 11 men dressed as women. The mob stripped him naked and then tarred and feathered him before stealing his horse and abandoning him in the forest.
Johnson recognized two men in the mob. He made a complaint and warrants were issued for their arrest. A cattle drover named John Connor was sent with the warrants, and he suffered the same fate as Johnson. He was tied to a tree in the woods for five hours before being found. In response, Johnson resigned his post, fearing further violence.
Incidents escalated over the next few years. In , the home of Pennsylvania excise officer Benjamin Wells was broken into twice. The second incident involved six men in disguises who attacked Wells while he was at home.
Feeling unrepresented in Congress, the citizens of Western Pennsylvania gathered their own assembly with three to five representatives per county. While radical members pushed for open rebellion, moderates like Hugh Henry Brackenridge and future Secretary of the U. Treasury Albert Gallatin urged conciliatory measures.
In the summer of , federal marshal David Lenox began the process of serving writs to 60 distillers in western Pennsylvania who had not paid the tax. On July 14, Lenox accepted the services of tax collector and wealthy landowner John Neville as guide through Allegheny County.
On July 15, they approached the home of William Miller, who refused to accept his summons. An argument ensued, and when Lenox and Neville rode off, they were face-to-face with an angry mob, armed with pitchforks and muskets—some were believed to be drunk.
Someone had told the mob that federal agents were dragging people away, but Lenox and Neville were allowed to pass once that was understood to be untrue. Nonetheless, a shot was fired as the two men rode away.
On the morning of July 16, Neville was asleep in his home, Bower Hill, when he was awakened by a crowd of angry men—some of whom had been served summons the previous day. The men claimed that Lenox needed to come with them because there was a threat to his life.
When the mob refused to move, Neville grabbed a gun and shot at the crowd, striking and killing Oliver Miller. In retaliation, the mob shot back at the house. Neville made it inside the house and sounded a signal horn, after which he heard the sound of his slaves attacking the crowd with firearms.
By evening, the mob had reconvened for a meeting with a group of other people who declared revenge on Neville. They demanded his surrender, but Major James Kirkpatrick, one of 10 soldiers who had come to the property to help defend it, answered that Neville was not there. In fact, Kirkpatrick had helped Neville escape the house and hide in a ravine.
The mob demanded that the soldiers surrender. When that request was refused, they set fire to a barn and slave dwellings. The Neville women were allowed to flee to safety, after which the mob opened fire on the house. In a rage, the mob set fire to other buildings and the soldiers soon surrendered as the Bower Hill estate burned to the ground. Less than a week later, the mob met with local dignitaries who warned that Washington would send a militia to strike them down and they had to strike first.
The city of Pittsburgh, fearing violence, sent a delegation to announce that the three letter writers had been expelled from the city and to offer a gift of several barrels of whiskey. With signs that the rebels were hoping to reignite the conflict and believing it was linked to unrest in other parts of the country, Hamilton wanted to send troops to Pennsylvania, but Washington opted for a peace envoy instead.
The peace envoy failed. Washington met with his cabinet officials and presented evidence of the violence to Supreme Court Justice James Wilson, who ruled a military response was justified under the auspices of the Militia Acts of Washington assumed emergency power to assemble more than 12, men from the surrounding states and eastern Pennsylvania as a federal militia.
Washington met first with the rebels, who assured him the militia was not needed and that order had been restored. Washington opted to retain the military option until proof of submission was apparent. The large and well-armed militia marched into western Pennsylvania and was met with angry citizens but little violence. They were marched to Philadelphia to stand trial regardless.
Only two men were found guilty of treason, and both were pardoned by Washington. The whiskey tax that inspired the rebellion remained in effect until Thomas P.
Failures of the Presidents. Thomas J. Whiskey Rebellion. National Park Service. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! Subscribe for fascinating stories connecting the past to the present.
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It was not ratified until March Live TV. This Day In History. History Vault. Whiskey Tax During the American Revolution , individual states incurred significant debt. Whiskey Tax Violence The law was immediately a failure, since refusals to pay the taxes were as common as intimidation against officials hired to collect them.
Attack on Bower Hill In the summer of , federal marshal David Lenox began the process of serving writs to 60 distillers in western Pennsylvania who had not paid the tax. A Threat to Pittsburgh Less than a week later, the mob met with local dignitaries who warned that Washington would send a militia to strike them down and they had to strike first. Washington Sends the Militia With signs that the rebels were hoping to reignite the conflict and believing it was linked to unrest in other parts of the country, Hamilton wanted to send troops to Pennsylvania, but Washington opted for a peace envoy instead.
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Taiping Rebellion The Taiping Rebellion was a revolt against the Qing dynasty in China, fought with religious conviction over regional economic conditions, and lasting from to Boxer Rebellion In , in what became known as the Boxer Rebellion or the Boxer Uprising , a Chinese secret organization called the Society of the Righteous and Harmonious Fists led an uprising in northern China against the spread of Western and Japanese influence there.
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